by Muhammad Naswir (Dissertation, 2014) Promoted by Susila Arita, Marsi dan Salni
The need for clean water is a basic human needs that must be fulfilled , the difficulties people who live in wetland areas (lowlands) to obtain clean water make them to use traditional peat water as a source of clean water. From preliminary studies it indicates that the peat water quality varies greatly between regions and does not deserve to be as a source of clean water due to its below water quality standards of peat water pH from 3.2 to 5.2 average, color 15.77 to 1065.08 mg L-1Pt.Co, iron (Fe) 0.429 -5.57 mg L-1 and substances of organic substances are 29.29 208.9 mg L-l, and to revise these parameters should be done a treatment, while in the areas are also available potential raw material deposits such as bentonite, activated carbon and shells that can be processed into a formula which can be used for water treatment peat. Therefore it is necessary for an investigation of appropriate technology that can be used for peat water treatment into clean water by using local raw materials.
This study is an experimental research in the laboratory and the field, the samples of the study were taken from 30 samples of peat were scattered in Jambi. On wet and dry seasons, five samples taken from three types of bentonite and activated carbon; coal, palm shell and coconut shell. Purposive sampling technique used in this study. Sample preparation, characterization and analysis of research results of single and formulations were done with reference to ASTM and the Indonesian National Standard procedures and the use of instruments of Duffraction X Ray, SEM-EDS, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Utraviolet Visibel and the statistical test was using ANOVA. The data is then presented in the form of tables, graphs, and interpretation of data. From raw materials look for CCBN best formula for water treatment to become clean water peat.
The results showed that the water contained in the peat in Jambi have different qualities. A proportion of the area in the tidal and non-tidal water quality in the dry season turf dry season is relatively better than in the rainy season. The key parameters of peat water is incompatible with the quality of water standards and it is necessary to process pH, color, TDS, iron (Fe) and organic substances.
Bentonite from the areas of BikuTanjung and Pauh are composed of the mineral kaolinite, quartz, montmorillonite and cristobalit, and it gives better results than other areas of bentonite in reducing peat water parameters, and with a dose of 8 g L-l can reduce 44.61% of color and 65 , 61%, organic matter 51.94% and 59.10%, and iron (Fe) 21.39% and 39.30%. Activation can affect the composition of bentonite constituent elements and compounds. After activation of bentonite Biku Tanjung content of Si02 and changed from 64.49% down to 22.63%, and 44.68% bentonite Pauh dropped to 44.11%. A1203 compound bentonite Biku Tanjung down to 19.47% to 18.75%, and 37.75% and bentonite Pauh dropped to 33.61% while the carbon content (C) increase. The changes in the composition have the implications on the ability of bentonite in changing the peat water parameter .
The activation affects the composition of active carbon coconut shell before n was activated, the active carbon coconut shell has a composition of 98.03% carbon compounds and K20 1.97% after it was activated by H3PO4 changing the carbon content of 96.53% and 3.47% K20, and the HCl is activated by changes in the composition of the original carrying carbon content of 98.03% and 1.97% K20 transformed into carbon content of 97.64% and 2.36% chlorine formed and did not formed compound K20. Singly activated carbon from batubara, palm shell and coconut shell already has the ability to lower the water the color of peat, iron (Fe) and organic matter in the peat water activated carbon made but have not been able to raise and lower the pH of the TDS peat water.
The results of the analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra show that sea shell (A. granosa) after being burned at temperatures > 800°C to form a compound of calcite (CaO) and porlandite 8.6% Ca(OH)2 91.4%. These compounds are indispensable in the process of water treatment formulations peat by CCBN. The addition of powdered shells can raise and lower the pH of organic matter, color and iron (Fe), but can not lower the TDS substances, may even raise the suspended substances in water peat.
CCBN formulation with the best raw materials produced locally is CCBN5651. 2 g L’1 formula CCBN5651 able to reduce color 93. 99%, 86. 69% organic matter, iron (Fe) 89. 47% and a neutral pH to 7. 6. Formula CCBNBTS651 has koalinite mineral content (A128i205(OH)2), quartz (SiOz), montmorillonite [(OH) 4Si3A1402. nHZO], cristobalit (SiOz), Porlandit (Ca (OH)2, calcit (CaCO3), and muscovite ( K, NaA12(Si, Al)4010 (OH)21, with an average specific gravity of 2.5245 g cm‘3 and p/dx mix 52. 8 cm2 g’l. All raw material constituent of CCBN5651 formulas work m synergy and complementarity, and with the increase in specific gravity and surface area formula CCBN565 1 the stronger its ability to adsorb water material in peat formation process and the faster flocculation, coagulation and sedimentation. Applications to use a formula CCBN5651 in field in the Bramitam and Tangkit Jambi village areas giving improved water quality, water quality standard and suitable for consumption society.
Keywords: Peat water, bentonite, activated carbon, shellfish, formula CCBN