by Lilian Novarika (Thesis M.Sc Unesco-IHE, Delft, Netherland, 2017) Supervised by Robiyanto H. Susanto and M. F aizal
The wetland area in Indonesia is estimated to be 20.6 million ha or about 10.8% of Indonesia’s land area (Rahmawaty et al., 2014). Farmers’ businesses in Muliasari Village include rice, corn and watermelons developed to support food sufficiency. The problems of agriculture in tidal swamp land are poor water system management especially lack of proper water system in tertiary block to support agricultural activity so that there is excess water in rainy season and shortage in dry season, besides water management is influenced by type of land, condition Land and channels. In addition, the system of paddy field farming, corn and watermelon and agricultural activities that tend to use excessive inorganic fertilizers are considered to pollute the environment, such as the decline in surface water quality caused by the excessive use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers. On the review of farming systems in terms of water system and pollution potential in Tertiary Muliasari Village 4 (TC4) and tertiary 5 (TCS).
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the water system of tertiary block and farming system, to evaluate the potential of soil and water pollution caused by the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides and produce recommendation of farming system of paddy, corn and watermelon productive and environmentally friendly. Research conducted on Tidal Land Village Muliasari Primer l7 (P17-5N) TC4 and TCS, Kecamatan Tanjung Lago, Banyuasin District. This research uses survey method and qualitative approach with observation strategy and directional interview with questionnaire.
Methods of sampling of soil and water are determined at 2 (two) stations, soil samples are taken by using purposive sampling method, which is purposely picking point of soil sampling at 0-20 cm depth, each station is taken 3 (three) plot of land which respectively Plot taken 3 (three) sample points, on each sample will be composed, while water samples taken at the same point. From the observation, the location of the research shows that the water system in TC4 and TCS is poorly maintained and the condition of the water gate is not working anymore, while the farming system that performs 3 (three) times of planting is very dependent on the water condition, therefore it is necessary to improve the water system and Installation of sluices on 2 (two) sides of giver channel (SPD) and drainage channel (SDU). The need to perform maintenance by regulating the water needs for plants by way of operation of tertiary gate.
When measured by the STORET method the scores of the research area -6 which means water quality including class B or lightly contaminated. The farming system of Desa Muliasari TC4 and T‘C5 can do three planting times in one year by cultivating rice crops during the first planting season (MT1), maize during the second growing season (MT2) and watermelon in the third growing season (MT3) Agricultural land owned by each llll averaging 2 Ha and rice varieties used type Sanita, Infara 2, TW and Ciherang. In addition to fertilizing and weeding farmers also perform maintenance by regulating the water needs for plants by way of operation of tertiary gate. This activity is done by changing the water gate in accordance with the function and the water requirement that is by putting the water gate in front for drainage of water from the ground and put the water gate in the back for the water supply of the slaughter (irrigation).
Potential of soil and water contamination by inorganic fertilizers and pesticides at research sites is quite high, this can be seen from the results of chemical analysis labaroratorium. The mean soil chemical properties showed moderate to very high yields with mean values of pH 4.59 and 3.92; CEC is 21,65 me / 100 g and 20,62 me / 100g; C-organic 25.3700 and 38.370 0; N-total 0.350 0; P205 which is 81,55 ppm and 36,06 ppm whereas value of K20 103,32 ppm and 80,82 ppm. From the scores of soil health class, the research area was healthy with the percentage of 760 o for TC4 and 73° 0 for TC5. The residual content of the soil in the form of chlorantraniliprol active ingredient of 0.02 mg /kg and atrazine active ingredient 0.04 mg / kg exceeds the predetermined BMR. The concept of integrated wetland management in Muliasari Village, Tanjung Lago Subdistriet, Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatera Province can use agro-ecological concept and its relation to sustainable agriculture, where disease control uses intererop and polyculture and it is expected that farmers use organic fertilizer and biopesticide in controlling pests in plants.